1. The shift to the use of coal in seventeenth century England is believed to have
A. caused serious environmental damage to both England and Scotland.
B. strengthened England s position as the economic center of Europe.
C. weakened the role of artistry in production.
D. facilitated England s later dominance on the seas.
2. By the end of the seventeenth century, attitudes that witch hunting was a reasonable response to natural or social calamity changed. This was largely brought about by the
A. Newtonian mechanistic view of the universe.
B. disbelief in Satan s responsibility for misfortunes.
C. improved living conditions of the seventeenth century.
D. increase in religious tolerance.
3. African slaves were regarded as superior to all other enforced immigrants to the New World because they
A. were available in great numbers.
B. tended to be docile.
C. were affordable labor for plantation work .
D. survived the best in the American tropics.
4. Portugal had the advantage over Spain and other nations in securing the spice trade because they
A. were able to keep the all water route a secret.
B. had superior ships and navigational equipment.
C. had developed a system of stations along the route.
D. had greater financial reserves for funding expeditions.
5. Europeans set out to establish sugar plantations in the Caribbean in an attempt to
A. satisfy a newly developed sweet tooth.
B. meet their needs and eliminate an expensive import.
C. supply the network of European bakeries .
D. mass produce alcoholic beverages.